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Results for the white collar workers are fairly similar including the double loading of item D6. The only difference is that the first factor consisted of the disengagement items and the second factor referred to the exhaustion items.
Taken together, these EFA-findings indicate that the factor structure of the OLBI is confirmed for both health care and white collar workers providing support for our first hypothesis.
Measurement of Burnout and Engagement 12 Specifically, CFA was used to test Hypothesis 2 stating that the responses on the OLBI items underlie the burnout components exhaustion and disengagement or the method of item framing positive and negative item formulation.
This relies on the criteria of Campbell and Fiske for multitrait-multimethod matrices and corresponds to the methodology proposed by Bagozzi Specifically, we tested the Trait model, which hypothesizes that the variation in the items can be explained fully by the underlying traits the burnout components plus errors, and without any differentiation among item framing.
The burnout items were included as observed variables and the burnout components as correlated latent factors. Both exhaustion and disengagement were operationalized by eight items.
The Method model rests on the assumption that the structure is determined not by the burnout components but by whether items were positively or negatively formulated.
This model does not take into consideration the different burnout components. It includes the 16 burnout items and two correlated latent method factors.
This model combines both previous models. It includes again all burnout items and two categories of latent factors: a the two burnout components traits that are correlated; and b the two methods, which also correlate with each other.
However, correlations between burnout components and methods were not included. Each item has therefore two loadings: one on a burnout dimension and one on a method factor.
In the way we should be better able to uncover the factors that influence responses to the OLBI items than by considering them in separate models.
Table 2 displays the overall fit indices of the competing models for the multi-group MTMM analysis. This is not unexpected because the chi-square is dependent on sample size.
Thus, while differentiation between both the burnout dimensions and the item formulation seems to be substantial, the differentiation between the burnout dimensions is more important.
This substantiates Hypothesis 2. Additionally, for health care employees, all items had significant loadings on both types of latent factors, the burnout dimensions and the method factors.
For white collar workers, we found that all items loaded on both kinds of latent factors save two exceptions: E4 and E7 had non-significant loadings on the exhaustion factor.
In general, the pattern of factor loadings suggests that the loadings were somewhat higher for the two method factors than for the two burnout dimensions.
In order to test Hypothesis 3 i. Specifically the first model contained equal correlations between the latent factors for both sectors, the second model contained equal factor loadings on the burnout dimensions and the third model contained equal factor loadings on the method factors for both sectors.
These findings indicate that the factor structure of the OLBI is similar for both health care and white collar workers.
Both sectors differ, however, in the influence that item framing has on the responses to the OLBI items. This substantiates Hypothesis 4. Inspection of the mean scores on the item level showed that compared to white collar workers, health care workers more frequently agreed with item E1 and less frequently agreed with item D8.
Additionally, compared to white collar workers, health care workers more frequently agreed with items E4 and D6 and disagreed with the items E3 and D1.
Discussion This study is important in that it provides evidence for the validity of an alternative burnout measure for health care and white collar workers.
The findings clearly indicate that the OLBI is a reliable instrument including two moderately high correlating dimensions. Results further confirmed that both sectors differed significantly in the levels of burnout.
Health care workers experienced significantly higher levels of burnout both exhaustion and disengagement than white collar workers.
This corresponds with the findings of Demerouti , who found that health care workers reported higher levels of disengagement than white collar workers air traffic controllers.
These differences may be due to the worse working conditions that health care workers are exposed to compared to white collars.
In comparison to white collar workers, health care professionals reported to be more frequently tired before going to work and after finishing work.
This suggests that their job demands are so high that they cannot recover during off-job time. Moreover, they experience a kind of disillusionment towards their work in general because they do not find interesting aspects in their job any more and they stop feeling engaged in what they do.
For both health care and white collar workers, exhaustion and disengagement emerged as clear factors with all items loading on the intending factor except for D6.
This item had double loadings and therefore cannot be clearly classified in one of the two burnout dimensions.
An important finding of the CFA was not only the confirmation of the suggested two- factor structure for both health care and white collar workers, but also that the factor structure was invariant because the factor loadings did not differ between the sectors.
Also Demerouti found that the factor loadings of the OLBI items did not differ substantially between a variety of health care, production and white collar workers.
Perhaps the most interesting question answered by the present study is whether scales that include both positively and negatively formulated items to operationalize the same dimensions include two types of factors, namely the theoretical dimensions and the dimensions concerning the wording of the items.
Results suggest that both types of factors influence item responses at least regarding the OLBI. Failing to differentiate between the exhaustion and disengagement factor resulted in a very unsatisfactory model fit which was substantially worse than failing to differentiate between positively and negatively wording factors.
Thus, the underlying, theoretical dimensions of the OLBI were confirmed. However, the results of the MTMM model showed that both kinds of factors are important and that eliminating the method factors resulted in a worse fit of the model to the data.
Moreover, the OLBI items had significant loadings on both kinds of factors. Accordingly, negatively framed items are not highly and linearly related to positively framed items but show high linear relationships with other negatively framed items.
This is particularly the case when Likert-type scales are used. The consequence is that two clusters of highly linearly related items can emerge.
Therefore, it is suggested to use non-parametric ways of analyses in future studies with the OLBI, instead of confirmatory factor analysis.
The implication of this discussion is that using one-sided scales makes things simpler because we can never investigate the influence of factors like item framing on the individual responses.
However, following such an approach we can never recover the problem that we find relationships between constructs simply because their items are framed the same way.
Since the OLBI includes items that measure the whole continuum for both dimensions ranging from vigor to exhaustion and from dedication to disengagement it can be used to measure both burnout and its opposite, work engagement.
Energy scores can be obtained adding the four positive, vigor items and the four recoded, exhaustion items.
A high score on energy indicates a high level of vigor, whereas a low score on energy indicates a high level of exhaustion.
Analogously, identification scores can be obtained by adding the four positively framed engagement items and the four recoded disengagement items.
A high score on identification indicates a high level of dedication, whereas a low score on identification indicates a high level of disengagement.
While additional validation research is warranted, the present study among a variety of health care and white collar organizations finds support for the internal consistency and factorial validity of the OLBI.
Moreover, the present study contributes to the discussion regarding the measurement of burnout and its hypothetical opposite state of work engagement.
Our results suggest that the OLBI is able to capture the core dimensions of burnout and its opposite. The differentiation between the dimensions of vigor-exhaustion and dedication- disengagement is more crucial than the differentiation between positively and negatively worded items that the existing measurement instruments use to measure work engagement and burnout respectively.
The instrument can be used for virtually every job, including health care, and is sensitive enough to uncover differences between jobs.
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